Arabic calligraphy in Morocco
Arabic calligraphy in Morocco, Moroccan calligraphy ( Maghrebi script refers to a group of interconnected Arabic calligraphic styles that developed in the countries of the Maghreb (North Africa), Andalusia (Iberian Peninsula) and western Sudan (Sahel region).
The art of Arabic calligraphy in Morocco
Moroccan calligraphy is derived from kufic script, and is written with a pen that looks very balanced, and is used in works of art.
Arabic script entered the Maghreb countries in the first century AH / 7 AD, that is, with the Islamic conquest of Morocco, and all writing styles from the East were adopted, including kufic script, as mentioned in the city of Kairouan, the capital of the region, and from there it spread to the rest of the Maghreb.
The Moroccan script is a direct descendant of the kufic script, so it was derived from Levantine scripts before applying the calligraphic reforms introduced by Ibn Muqla in what is known as the attributed script.
The Moroccan line spread from capitals such as Kairouan, Fez and Cordoba.
Moroccan script was used for centuries in the writing of Arabic manuscripts circulating in the Maghreb.
According to Moroccan historian Muhammad al-Mununi, there were 104 paper mills in Fez during the reign of Yusuf ibn Tashfin in the Almoravid era, and 400 paper mills during the reign of Sultan Yacoub al-Mansur in the Almohad era.
Whenever it entered a region, it was called by its name, and so this line was called the Kairouan line, and when it entered Morocco, it was called the Moroccan line.
As for Andalusia, the kufic line also developed, and two basic types appeared, in one of which there are many angles called Andalusian kufic, and in the other there are many turns and bends called Qurtubi or Andalusian, and it was used in copying the Koran and books.
The differentiation between Andalusian and North African lines continued until the 4th century AH / 10 AD.
Then North Africa came under Andalusian influence, with the arrival of waves of Andalusian immigrants and the beginning of the decline of Arab-Islamic influence in Andalusia.
In this sense, Ibn Khaldun says:
“As for the peoples of Andalusia, they have spread into the countries since the disappearance of the king of the Arabs and Berbers behind them….
They spread to the enemy of the Maghreb and Ifriqiya…
And they clung to the lower ranks of the state, so their lineage prevailed over the Ifriqiyan lineage and forgave it, and the lineage of Kairouan and Mahdia was forgotten…
Became the lineages of the Ifriqiya people as a whole On the Andalusian design in Tunisia and so on…
There remained a drawing in the land of al-Jarid that did not rub shoulders with the writers of Andalusia…
Arabic calligraphy in Morocco
And it happened in the state of Bani Marin, after that, in Morocco, Al-Aqsa, a color of the Andalusian line because of their proximity, and the fall of those who came out of it in Fez soon, and they were used by the rest of the state and forgotten The era of the scenario later of the reign of the king and his house , as if it were not known.”
This means that the Andalusian line replaced the local lines affected by Kairouan, and Ibn Khaldun excluded the Bilad al-Jarid region because it didn’t communicate with the Andalusians.
The development of the Andalusian line, in turn, generated what was later called the Moroccan line.
Moroccan script in the Maghreb Al-Aqsa underwent a deterioration that coincided with the period of deterioration there under the reign of the Alawite sultan Muhammad III, and this illegible script was called Bedouin script.
Some Moroccan calligraphers took the initiative to write about calligraphy and its rules, to adjust methods and forms, and to make it available to followers of Moroccan calligraphy, such as the system of “Rules for the Mechanism of Al- Samt in Tahseen Badi’ Al-Khatt” and his explanation of “The Writer’s Ornament and the Student’s Wish” by calligrapher Ahmed bin Qasim Al-Rifai Al-Rabati (1841 AD).
Jeweled Moroccan calligraphy became the approved line in lithography after Muhammad Ibn al-Tayyib al-Roudani brought the first lithographic printing press from Egypt to Al-Aqsa in Morocco in 1864.
He mentions five subtypes of Moroccan calligraphy in his book La calligraphie marocaine : histoire, réalité et perspectives :
1- Moroccan kufic, a kufic writing style invented in the Maghreb and Andalusia
Almoravid kufi, a type of Moroccan kufi adopted by the Almoravid state
2- Al-Mabsout, a regular font adapted to the paragraphs of the text and the Koran. It is considered an extension of the kufic lineage and was known as Tajweed in Morocco and Andalusia.
It is similar to the Naskh line currently in use.
3- The Jewel, used by the King to announce Dahirs.
4- The Moroccan Thuluth, called the Levantine line or the Levantine West line, inspired by the Levantine Thuluth line.
5- Al-Musnad, also called Al-Zamami, is a script used by courts and tribunals to draw up marriage contracts, etc.
Arabic calligraphy in Morocco
It evolved from the jewelled Moroccan script, and the letters of this script tend to the right.
This font was used in texts to which editors wanted to add a sense of ambiguity, such as texts related to magic, due to the difficulty of reading it.
In addition, there’s Kandosi calligraphy, an innovative Moroccan calligraphy invented by Sufi calligrapher Muhammad bin Al-Qasim Al-Kandousi in the 19th century.
French orientalist Aktaf Hooda described four types of Moroccan calligraphy and attributed them to specific cities or countries:
Al-Qayrawani: distinguished by its short, close letters.
Al-Andalusi: fonts created in Andalusia
Fassi line: characterized by long vertical lines;
Al-Sudani or Timbuktu: relating to the country of Sudan (i.e. Africa south of the Sahara) or to the city of Timbuktu (in present-day Mali), and distinguished by its grandeur and coarseness.
There are Arab fonts from West Africa that are classified in Moroccan fonts and are called Sudanese fonts, from the country of Sudan, and Among the types of Sudanese fonts, there are:
-Suqi line relates to the market town, and was also used in Timbuktu and is associated with the Tuareg.
-Fulani line Hawsawi line
Mauritanian oval line
– The Al-Kanimi or Al-Kanawi line is associated with the region that is now Chad and northern Nigeria, and is associated with.
Desert line some of its properties
The Moroccan line has no specific rules or scales, as is the case with other Arab lines.
-In the absence of such rules, a letter can be written in several ways in the same document.
– Moroccan script retains some of the deposits it inherited from kufic script, such as the connected alif descending slightly from line level with a kufic appendage, and the letters kaf, sad, dhaad, ta’a and za ‘a extended in a manner reminiscent of kufic script.
-The letters Alif, Lam, Taa and Dhaa rarely retain their vertical form, as they are often curved and have something like a thick point at the top.
Arabic calligraphy in Morocco
-For the letter Zaa, the point can be drawn to the left of the chain.
-You can draw a dot “الظاء” inside the letter.
-Some letters take on an exaggerated extension if they’re at the end of a word, mainly (س ش ي ل ن).
– Nor can you write the dots on the last letters of Fa, Qaf and Noun.
-Moroccan calligraphy differs from the Arabic letters al-Fa’a and al-Qaf in that al-Fa’a is drawn with a point from below, and al-Qaf with a point from above.
Koranic manuscripts in Moroccan script
A Moroccan copy of a Koran written in 1148 AH, from the Shalom Yehuda Collection, National Library.
Leer more about Moroccan hospitality: 8 rituals and customs
Moroccan Hospitality, Morocco is known for its rich culture and tradition of warm hospitality.
The rituals of welcome and customs of Moroccan hospitality are a key element of Moroccan culture and an integral part of the travel experience for visitors.
In this article, we’ll explore the different aspects of Moroccan hospitality traditions and how they feature in everyday Moroccan life.
We’ll look at how guests are welcomed, how Moroccan dishes are prepared and served, how cultural activities are organized and how different aspects of Moroccan life can be explored. It will be a journey through Moroccan traditions of hospitality.
Welcome rituals in Morocco: an immersive experience
Welcome rituals in Moroccan homes are particularly important, as they symbolize the openness of one’s home to guests.
Hosts will offer you mint tea, pastries and rosewater along with other delicacies, all the while making you feel welcome in their home.
Moroccans take great care to create a warm ambience for their guests, with carpets, cushions and candles to create a welcoming atmosphere.
They are a way of sharing Moroccan culture and traditions with guests.
Welcome rituals at Moroccan parties and ceremonies
These Moroccan rituals are also important, as they provide an opportunity to share Moroccan culture and traditions with guests.
Wedding ceremonies, for example, are often accompanied by traditional song and dance, as well as traditional dishes such as couscous and tajines. Guests are often invited to join in the singing and dancing, making the experience even more immersive.
Arabic calligraphy in Morocco
Welcome rituals at Moroccan parties and ceremonies are a way of celebrating life’s important events by sharing them with guests.
Moroccan hospitality: a lesson in sharing
Hospitality customs in Moroccan families
The customs of Moroccan hospitality in Moroccan families are particularly warm, where hosts will offer you the best of what they have.
Moroccan families are often very proud to share their culture and cuisine with guests, and it’s not uncommon for hosts to prepare special dishes for their guests.
Moroccan families also place great importance on conversation, and it’s common for guests to be invited to join in discussions and debates around the table.
Hospitality customs in Moroccan families are a way of sharing Moroccan values and beliefs with guests.
Welcome rituals in Moroccan communities
Welcome rituals in Moroccan communities are also important, as they provide an opportunity to share Moroccan beliefs and values with guests.
Moroccan communities are often very proud of their culture and history, and it’s not uncommon for guests to be invited to take part in religious ceremonies and traditional feasts.
Guests are also often invited to take part in community activities, such as gardening and volunteer projects, helping them to feel connected to the community.
Welcome rituals in Moroccan communities are a way of strengthening social ties and reinforcing bonds with other members of the community.
Moroccan hospitality: an art of living
Welcome rituals in Moroccan restaurants
Moroccan hospitality traditions are also present in riads, traditional Moroccan guesthouses.
Riads are often located in historic neighborhoods and are designed to offer guests an authentic experience of Moroccan life.
Riad hosts are often experts in local cuisine, and guests can expect to sample delicious Moroccan dishes.
Riads also offer traditional spa treatments and activities such as silk painting and pottery for guests to explore Moroccan culture.
Moroccan traditions of hospitality in the riads offer guests an immersive experience in Moroccan culture.
Customs of hospitality in Moroccan shops
Moroccan hospitality traditions are also present in the Moroccan countryside, where guests can explore rural Moroccan life.
*Arabic calligraphy in Morocco
Host families in the Moroccan countryside are often farmers and herders,
and guests can expect to take part in activities such as olive picking and animal husbandry.
Guests can also discover rural Moroccan culinary traditions, such as the preparation of pastilla and tajine.
Moroccan traditions of hospitality in the Moroccan countryside offer guests a unique experience of rural Moroccan life.
Moroccan hospitality: a thousand-year-old tradition
The origins of Moroccan hospitality
The Moroccan traditions of hospitality are also present in hammams, the traditional Moroccan public baths.
Hammams are communal spaces where people can relax, cleanse and socialize.
Often divided into sections for men and women, guests can expect to be washed and massaged by experienced professionals.
Hammams also offer traditional beauty treatments such as exfoliation and facial sculpting.
Moroccan traditions of hospitality in hammams offer guests an immersive experience in Moroccan culture.
The importance of hospitality in Moroccan culture
Moroccan traditions of hospitality are also present in Moroccan gardens, traditional green spaces designed for contemplation and relaxation.
Moroccan gardens often feature fountains, flowerbeds and fruit trees.
Guests can expect to relax in Moroccan gardens, sampling fresh fruit and listening to traditional music.
The Moroccan traditions of hospitality in the Moroccan gardens offer guests an immersive experience in Moroccan culture.
Moroccan hospitality traditions are a key element of Moroccan culture. Rituals of welcome and customs of hospitality are present in Moroccan communities, riads, countryside, hammams and Moroccan gardens.
These traditions offer guests an immersive experience of Moroccan culture and strengthen the social bonds between community members.
Guests can expect a warm welcome, delicious Moroccan dishes, cultural activities and the chance to explore different aspects of Moroccan life.
Moroccan traditions of hospitality are an important part of Moroccan culture and another reason to visit this beautiful country.